# Deep Predictive Coding Networks (DPCN)

## The overall goal of the dynamical system at any layer is to make the best prediction of the representation in the layer below using the top-down information from the layers above and the temporal information from the previous states.

The brain is thought to seek to minimize value differences, and artificial networks are capable of both driving connections and conveying predictive information.

Computer models of predictive coding neuroscience can offer predictive capabilities and be classified into hierarchical deep neural networks. I think there is a very important feature of machine learning, namely the prerogative of a predictive neural network. Because of this characteristic, these networks are unable to perform effective incremental learning and are therefore unable to convey real predictable trust in the signal. The model is used to generate predictions of sensory input that are compared to actual sensory input. This comparison results in prediction errors that are then used to update and revise the mental model.

An artificial neural network is a connected group of nodes inspired by the simplification of neurons in the brain. While the logistic sigmoid has a nice biological interpretation, it turns out that some neural networks get stuck in training.

The overall goal of the dynamical system at any layer is to make the best prediction of the representation in the layer below using the top-down information from the layers above and the temporal information from the previous states. That is why it is named the name deep predictive coding networks (DPCN).

PredNet is a deep convolutional recurring neural network inspired by the human brain’s neural networks, such as the Deep Neural Network (DNN). Its architecture is illustrated in figure 1. PredNet learn to predict future frames of a video sequence through a layer of the network by making local predictions using backward information from the top layer and passing only differential or value predictions to subsequent upper network layers.

The top layer of the network connects to the bottom layer, and the second layer connects to the third layer and so on to the last layer.

In an artificial neural network, the activation function of a node is defined as input or set of inputs given to the node as input.

The activation function also has two objective functions, and the choice of the loss function must match. The circular nodes represent artificial neurons, the arrows represent the neural network model, which learns the mapping between the input and output examples.

The activation functions determine the ability of the neural network to be trained into models that can create or break a large neural network.

The reason for this low fluctuation is that the learning rate is remarkably close to zero due to the large amount of data and the low number of inputs and outputs.

In regression and predictive modelling, time series also increase the complexity of the sequence and the dependence on the input variables. Memory is self-management and can learn to learn or forget data, and this can be learned by learning from data and forgetting it.

Such networks are similar to networks that can be used for machine translation depending on the data sampling rate, we recommend using a deep neural network with at least two neural networks. TensorFlow Serving is a powerful serving system for deep learning and machine learning. NVIDIA TensorRT is able to combine the best of both, such as high performance and low latency, with the most powerful data processing capacities.

**Cited Sources**

- https://files.ntas-services.com/caz8tt/tensorrt-rnn-example.html
- https://solromong.xyz/wehnbh/net-prediction.html
- https://towardsdatascience.com/a-new-kind-of-deep-neural-networks-749bcde19108
- https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00345/full
- https://whitemountainsafaris.com/z9gyd/lstm-time-series.html
- https://cbmm.mit.edu/publications/prednet-deep-predictive-coding-networks-video-prediction-and-unsupervised-learning-code
- http://afrit.markadssyn.is/hrye/matlab-neural-network-training-functions.html
- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Predictive_coding
- https://arxiv.org/pdf/1301.3541.pdf
- https://coxlab.github.io/prednet/